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lunes, 27 de marzo de 2017

Glosario de terminos en Geriatria


Glosario

La Geriatría Dębe Atender al adulto mayor del tanto en Situación de la salud como de enfermedad. Dębe Prestar Atención Tanto los Aspectos Clínicos una Presentes En sus diseases Como a la prevention de las Mismas. De forma especial y en particular los relacionados: aspectos sociales Que pueden influir en la salud del adulto mayor de Como hijo de la soledad, el Aislamiento, la dependencia ..., Deben Formar parte del Trabajo y Actuación del médico geriatra.
Dar Una Asistencia integral. Dębe ocuparse de Toda La problematica Medica, funcional, mental y social, del anciano Mediante Una VALORACIÓN geriátrica, Programada y exhaustiva con la Colaboración multidisciplinar de profesionales Otros Integrados En un equipo con el médico geriatra global.
+ Problemas Médicos incluyendo: aspectos de Nutrición, estado de los Órganos, de los Sentidos, salud bucodental, síndromes geriátricos, etc.
+ Evaluation De Las Capacidades Funcionales.
+ VALORACION mental, atendiendo a los Problemas cognitivos y afectivos de los ancianos.
+ VALORACION sociales, atendiendo a la Situación y Necesidades Sociales del Individuo.
ES: Por ello Que Un equipo multidisciplinar de Como médico geriatra, enfermera, fisioterapeuta, terapeuta ocupacional, psicólogo y asistente social. Deben Trabajar de forma coordinada en torno al Plan de Objetivos y cuidados establecido párrafo Cada anciano.


A

accommodation the process by which the eyes focus

acquired immunity immunity acquired by coming into contact with infectious microorganisms

acute coronary syndrome (ACS) an umbrella term for a group of conditions that result in coronary artery disease

acute illness describes an illness with a sudden/rapid onset which is severe in nature

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severe difficulty in getting adequate oxygenation despite significant effort to breathe

acute wound a wound that is new or relatively new in injury and occurs suddenly

afterload the force required by the ventricles when they contract to force the blood out

allergy an overreaction of the immune system to normally harmless environmental substances. These substances are then known as allergens

amenorrhoea the absence of menstrual period

amines organic compounds that contain nitrogen

amputation the surgical removal of a limb

anaphylaxis an extreme form of hypersensitivity

androgens hormones such as testosterone responsible for the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics

anions negatively charged ions

anorgasmia an inability to reach orgasm during sexual intercourse

anosmia the inability to smell; may be seen with lesions of the frontal lobe

anterior front

antibody a protein that is produced to fight infectious microorganisms (also known as an immunoglobulin)

anticipatory grieving grieving before the loss has occurred

antigen a substance that causes an antibody response by the body (e.g. antibody generation)

anuria absence of urine

aphasia defective or absent language function

arthritis a group of degenerative diseases affecting joints

asthma a condition where there is widespread narrowing of the bronchial airways brought on by a number of stimuli

ataxia a lack of coordination and a clumsiness of movements

atelectasis the failure of part of the lung to expand

atherosclerosis a progressive disease characterised by atheroma (plaque) formation, which affects the intimal and medial layers of large and midsized arteries

aura a symptom experienced before a migraine or seizure e.g. flashing lights

autoimmunity an abnormal immune response to the body’s own cells, which act as selfantigens

autosome a nonsex chromosome

azotaemia an elevation of blood urea nitrogen

B

bacterial vaginosis a common cause of vaginal discharge

benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) an overgrowth of cells in the prostate gland

bile a bitter yellowish, blue and green fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver

biotherapy the modification of the biological processes in malignant cells, by enhancing the person’s own immune responses

breakthrough pain pain that exceeds baseline treated or untreated pain

bronchiectasis the widening of the bronchi or their branches

bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi

Brudzinski’s sign flexion of the neck that causes the hip and knee to flex

bursitis the inflammation of small sacs of synovial fluid that cushion and protect bony areas that are at high risk for friction, such as the knee and the shoulder


C

calculi stones

calyces small funnelshaped cavities formed from the renal pelvis

candidiasis a yeast infection

cardiac output the amount of blood pumped by the ventricles into the pulmonary and systemic circulation in one minute

cardiac reserve the heart’s ability to work harder and faster when challenged as in exercise

cardiovascular disease (CVD) a generic term for disorders of the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease

cataract a clouding of the lens within the eye

cations positively charged ions

cellulitis the localised infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue

cerumen ear wax

chancre a small type of painless ulcer

cheilosis an inflammatory lesion at the corner of the mouth

chelation the process of breaking down excess iron

chemoreceptors receptors that respond to changes in the chemical environment

chemotherapy medication used to treat cancers

chlamydia the most common sexually transmitted infection

chronic bronchitis a longterm condition with excessive mucous production

chronic heart failure a progressive disease that results when the heart cannot function because of damage sustained through cardiovascular diseases

chronic illness longterm on going illnesses often increasing in severity over time

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a disease of adults predominantly over 45 years of age with a history of smoking or inhaling airborne pollutants

chronic pain pain which lasts more than 6 months and frequently lacks the objective manifestations of acute pain, primarily because the autonomic nervous system adapts to this chronic stress

chronic wound a wound that digresses from the normal order of repair in terms of length of time

Chvostek’s sign a test for neuromuscular irritability. Chvostek’s sign is done by tapping the facial nerve 2 cm anterior to the earlobe. A positive response is ipsilateral (same side) twitching of the facial muscles

chyme a semifluid substance of the stomach

compartment syndrome a syndrome that occurs when excess pressure in a limited space of the muscle compartment constricts the structures within it, reducing circulation to muscles and nerves leading to necrosis

compartments spaces

complement a system of proteins that work with (complement) antibodies to fight bacteria

concordance describes the action of people who readily follow prescribed treatments and medication

conjunctivitis inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva

contralateral located on the opposite side of the body (brain)

contusion bleeding into soft tissue that results from a blunt force, such as a kick or striking a body part against a hard object

convergence the inward movement of both eyes

corneal reflex the blink reflex

coronary heart disease (CHD) a disorder of the blood vessels serving the heart in which damage has been caused to them by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques (also known as coronary artery disease)

cor pulmonale the enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart resulting from lung disease

critical thinking the action of focused selfdirected thinking

Cushing’s syndrome a metabolic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol

cyanosis a bluish tinge to the skin and mucous membranes resulting from inadequate levels of oxygen in arterial blood

cystic fibrosis (CF) an hereditary disorder affecting cells of the endocrine system

cytokines chemical messengers released by cells to instruct other cells to undertake various functions.

cytotoxic any cell or other substance that kills or damages cells (e.g. bacteria or viruses)


D

dehiscence when the opposite edges of a surgical wound open spontaneously

dehydration excessive fluid loss from the body

dermis the second, deeper layer of skin

detoxification the removal of toxic substances from the body

diabetes insipidus a condition where the kidneys cannot conserve water as a result of lack of ADH

diabetic retinopathy a common diabetic eye disease

differentiation a process by which cells go through stages of development to maturity

diplopia double vision due to lack of parallelism

disease disorder with specifically defined signs and symptoms

diuresis excess urine production

duct tube

dysarthria difficulty speaking

dysfunctional uterine bleeding the most common cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding

dysmenorrhoea severe pain during menstruation

dyspareunia painful sexual intercourse

dysphagia difficulty swallowing (common with impaired blood flow to the brain)

dyspnoea laboured or difficult breathing

dysuria painful urination


E

ecchymosis bleeding under the skin

electrocardiogram (ECG) a graphic record of the heart’s activity depicting the electrical impulses produced during a cardiac cycle and portraying them as a wave on graph paper through a heated stylus

electrolytes substances that dissociate in water to form ions

emphysema disease of the lungs where alveoli are enlarged and damaged

enddiastolic volume the volume of blood in the ventricles before they contract

endocrine gland a ductless gland that secretes hormones into the bloodstream

endometriosis the condition in which cells similar to those lining the uterus are found elsewhere in the body

endsystolic volume the volume of blood left in the ventricles after they have contracted (the ventricle is never completely empty)

epidermis the surface or outermost part of the skin

epididymitis infection and inflammation of the epididymis

erectile dysfunction (ED) an inability to get and maintain an erection that is satisfactory for sexual activity

erythema reddening of the skin

erythropoietin a hormone produced by the kidneys that regulates red blood cell production

excretion the elimination of waste products of metabolism

exocrine refers to a group of cells that secrete hormones through a duct into a blood vessel

extracellular space outside the cell

exudate fluid rich in protein and cellular elements that oozes out of blood vessels due to inflammation and is deposited in nearby tissues


F

fasciculations spontaneous firing of an axon resulting in a visible twitch of all the muscle fibres it contacts

fat embolism syndrome a syndrome characterised by neurological dysfunction, pulmonary insufficiency and a petechial rash on the chest, axillae and upper arms

fibrocystic changes changes that occur in the breast and can be felt as lumps

fibromyalgia a disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis in which people have low levels of serotonin and high levels of Substance P, leading to symptoms of pain and fatigue

filtration a passive transport system

flail chest instability of a segment of the ribcage due to fracture of ribs. Ribs may puncture lungs

fracture a break in the bone

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G

genital herpes a genital infection cause by the herpes simplex virus

genital warts a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus

gingivitis inflammation of the gums

glands the skin contains sebaceous (oil) glands, sudoriferous (sweat) glands and ceruminous (earwax) glands. Each of these glands has a different function

glaucoma a condition in which the optic nerve becomes damaged leading to progressive and irreversible loss of vision

glomerulus a network of capillaries found in the Bowman’s capsule

goitre a hypertrophic thyroid gland

gonorrhoea a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria

gout an arthritis that arises from inflammation that is caused following a buildup of serum uric acid which precipitates as sodium monourate crystals in the joints causing erosion of cartilage and bone

grading an evaluation of the amount of differentiation (level of functional maturity) of the tissue

grief the emotional response to loss and its accompanying changes

growth factors naturally occurring substances capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation. Usually it is a protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes

gynaecomastia an enlargement of male breast tissue


H

haematoma abnormal localised collection of blood in which the blood is usually clotted or partially clotted and situated within an organ or a soft tissue space, such as within a muscle

haematopoiesis the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow

haematuria blood in the urine

haemoptysis bloodstained sputum

haemothorax blood in the pleural cavity

health state of individual wellbeing

health behaviour individual response to health activities

health–illness continuum theoretical line between health and illness

hemianopia the loss of vision in one half of the visual field

hemiparesis weakness on one side of the body

hemiplegia paralysis of onehalf of the body vertically

hilum a small indented part of the kidney

holistic healthcare allencompassing care

hormones chemical messengers

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a virus that can cause a severe and often fatal immunodeficiency if untreated.

humoral pertaining to elements in the blood or other body fluids

hydrocele a collection of fluid in the scrotum

hyperaemia increased blood flow to the skin

hyperglycaemia higher than normal amount of blood glucose

hyperkalaemia high potassium level in the blood

hyperlipidaemia high levels of fat

hypermetabolism an abnormal increase in metabolic rate

hyperopia long sightedness

hypersecretion excessive production

hypersensitivity oversensitivity of the immune system to certain normally harmless environmental substances

hypertension high blood pressure

hyperthyroidism condition characterised by overactivity of the thyroid gland

hypertonic a solution that has a high concentration of solutes

hypoglycaemia lower than normal amount of blood glucose

hyponatraemia low sodium level in the blood

hypophysis refers to the posterior pituitary gland

hyposecretion low production

hypothyroidism condition characterised by underactivity of the thyroid gland

hypotonic a solution that has a low concentration of solutes

hypoxaemia reduced oxygen concentration in arterial blood


I

illness state of individual deterioration of health

immune system the system responsible for providing protection against infectious microorganisms, tumours, foreign bodies and a whole host of potential problems

immunisation the process of protecting against certain infectious diseases without having to have been infected

inflammation the body’s immediate reaction to tissue injury or damage.

innate immunity the immunity we are born with (also known as nonspecific immunity, giving allround protection)

integrated care pathways multi disciplinary plan for delivering health and social care to individuals with established health breakdown

intracellular space inside the cell

ipsilateral located on the same side of the body (brain)

ischaemia the inadequate supply of blood to an organ or part of the body as from an obstructed blood flow

isotonic solution that has the same osmolality as the body fluids


K

keloid scars elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scars

Kernig’s sign the inability to extend the knee while the hip is flexed at a 90-degree angle

kidneys organs situated in the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity


L

leiomyoma a benign change (often in the uterus) associated with the soft tissue

libido sexual desire

loss an actual or potential situation in which a valued object, person, body part or emotion that was formerly present is lost or changed and can no longer be seen, felt, heard, known or experienced

lymphocytes a class of white blood cells (leucocytes) that are part of the acquired immune system

lymphoedema a collection of lymph fluid that does not drain away from the tissues

lymphoid system a blood cell system that is made up of the lymphocytes

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M

mediator cells cells of the immune system that do not kill invading microorganisms, but rather help other cells to do so.

memory cells T- and Bcell lymphocytes that can remember previous infection by a particular microorganism, therefore quickly involving the immune system in destroying them if subsequently infected by the same microorganism

Ménière’s disease a rare disorder that can affect the inner ear

menopause the cessation of female reproductive ability and the ending of menstruation

menorrhagia heavy menstrual blood loss

menstrual cycle a cycle of female reproductive changes

metabolism a set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to sustain life

metrorrhagia irregular menstrual bleeding, e.g. bleeding between periods

micturition the act of voiding urine

myopia ability to see near objects clearly but faraway objects appear blurred

myringotomy a tiny surgical incision in the eardrum

N

nausea an unpleasant sensation that produces a feeling of discomfort in the region of the stomach with a feeling of a need to vomit

nephron functional unit of the kidney

neurohypophysis refers to the anterior pituitary gland

neutrophils white blood cells of the innate immune system involved in the process of phagocytosis

nociceptive painful

nociceptors nerve endings that are stimulated either by persistent mechanical, chemical or thermal stimuli to the cell, or by the local release of biochemicals secondary to cell injury

nocturia excessive urination at night

nonunion failure of the bones to heal

nuchal rigidity stiff neck

nursing ethics code of principles governing nursing behaviour

nursing process an individualised problemsolving approach to the nursing care of individuals

nutrition relates to nutrients

nystagmus an involuntary movement of an eye that may be horizontal, vertical or rotary


O

oedema abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space

oestrogen a general term for a female sex-related hormone

oligomenorrhoea infrequent menstruation

oliguria diminished urine output

oncology the study of cancer (the term come from a Greek word oncoma which means ‘bulk’)

opsonins substances that help the immune system to function, playing an important role in phagocytosis

orchitis infection and inflammation of the testes

orthopnoea shortness of breath (dyspnoea) which occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair. It is the opposite of platypnoea

osmosis the movement of water through a selective permeable membrane from an area of high volume to an area of low volume

osmotic pressure pressure created by water as it moves across through a selective permeable membrane

ossification the deposition of calcium to harden the bones

osteoarthritis (OA) the most commonly occurring of all forms of arthritis; characterised by loss of articular cartilage in articulating joints and hypertrophy of the bones at the articular margins

osteomyelitis an infection of the bone which can be acute, subacute or chronic

osteoporosis a metabolic disorder where bone cells are lost leading to fragile bones which can fracture easily

otitis externa inflammation or infection of the external ear canal

otitis media inflammation or infection in the middle ear

ovarian cycle the normal sex cycle that includes the development of an ovarian follicle, rupture of the follicle and discharge of the ovum

P

Paget’s disease an agerelated, progressive metabolic skeletal disorder that results from excessive metabolic activity in bone, with excessive bone reabsorption followed by excessive bone formation

pain the subjective response to both physical and psychological stressors. All people experience pain at some point during their lives. Although pain is usually experienced as uncomfortable and unwelcome, it serves a protective role. For this reason, pain is increasingly referred to as the fifth vital sign

palliative wound a wound that cannot be classified as acute or chronic and whose outcome of wound healing is considered both challenging and unattainable

pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas

papilloedema swelling of the nerve head in the optic discs seen in raised intracranial pressure

paraesthesia an abnormal sensation, typically tingling or pricking (pins and needles)

parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system

parenchyma soft tissue of the kidney involving the cortex and the medulla

parenteral the administration of a drug intravenously or intramuscularly

passive immunity immunity given either via the umbilical cord prebirth or as an infusion in the case of an immune deficiency

pelvic inflammatory disease a condition involving inflammation of the upper genital tract

peristalsis wavelike symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles of the intestine

phagocytosis destruction and consumption of invading microorganisms and other nonself matter by elements of the immune system

phimosis a tight foreskin

photophobia an abnormal intolerance to light, usually associated with eye pain

plasma the fluid component of blood

pleuritis inflammation of the pleura

pneumonia an acute lung infection

pneumothorax air in the pleural cavity

polymerisation the grouping and sticking together in twisted bundles of haemoglobin molecules due to haemoglobin deoxygenating in sickle cell disease, eventually distorting the shape of the red blood cell

posterior behind

preload the capacity the ventricles have to stretch when filling up with blood during diastole

premenstrual syndrome the name given to a set of physical, emotional and psychological symptoms that appear in the days preceding a woman’s period

presbyopia the diminished ability of the eye to focus on near objects with age

priapism a condition in which the penis does not return to its flaccid state

primary immunodeficiencies deficiencies of the immune system for which there is no external cause, i.e. they are genetic in origin

prodromal premonitory symptoms that occur hours to days before the episode

progesterone a hormone predominantly produced in the ovaries

proptosis projecting forward of the eyeball

prostatitis infection and inflammation of the prostate gland

proteinuria protein in the urine

ptosis drooping of the upper eyelid

pulmonary embolism a clot in the blood vessels of the lungs

pupillary light reflex a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil

pyrexia fever

pyuria presence of white blood cells in the urine

Q

quality assurance review and assessment against an established set of benchmarks


R

radiotherapy a treatment using high energy xrays to destroy cancer cells

receptors proteins on cells that can send and receive messages from other cells via cytokines, as well as allowing other cells (and microorganisms) to attach to cells

refraction the bending of light rays as they pass from one medium to another medium of different optical density

renal artery blood vessel that takes blood to the kidney

renal cortex the outermost part of the kidney

renal medulla the middle layer of the kidney

renal pelvis the funnelshaped section of the kidney

renal pyramids coneshaped structures of the medulla

renal vein blood vessel that returns filtered blood into circulation

renin a renal hormone that alters systemic blood pressure

retrograde ejaculation when semen passes into the urinary bladder as opposed to along the urethra

rheumatoid arthritis (RA) a common inflammatory disorder


S

scleroderma an umbrella term that incorporates a group of rare conditions that may be either localised, affecting the skin only, or generalised (systemic sclerosis), with both skin and visceral organ involvement

secondary immunodeficiencies deficiencies of the immune system caused by an external source

semen a whitish/grey liquid emitted from the penis on ejaculation

sexually transmitted infections infections transmitted through intimate sexual activity

specific gravity density

spermatocele a cyst that becomes distended in the scrotal sac

sphincter a ringlike muscle fibre that can constrict

sprain a stretch and/or tear of one or more ligaments surrounding a joint

stem cell an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)

strain a stretching injury to muscle or muscle and tendons by mechanical overloading

stridor vibrating sound during respiration

stroke volume the difference between the enddiastolic volume and the endsystolic volume; the exact amount pumped from the ventricle to the aorta in one beat

subcutaneous tissue a layer of subcutaneous tissue called the superficial fascia lies under the dermis

sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system

syncope a sudden and temporary loss of consciousness

synovitis inflammation of the synovium

synthesised produced

syphilis a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a chronic inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting mainly women of childbearing age. It frequently affects the musculoskeletal system but also affects kidneys, lungs, heart, skin and central nervous system


T

testicular torsion twisting of the spermatic cord, which cuts off the blood supply to the testicle and surrounding structures within the scrotum

thoracentesis aspiration of fluid from the pleural space

thyroidectomy surgical removal of the thyroid gland

tinnitus the perception of sound within the ear without the corresponding external sound

tremor involuntary, rhythmic oscillatory movements about a fixed point due to alternating or synchronous contractions of agonist and antagonist muscles

trichomoniasis a common type of infection that can occur in men and women

Trousseau’s sign Trousseau’s sign is carried out by placing a blood pressure cuff on the arm, inflating the cuff slightly above the systolic pressure, leaving the cuff inflated for two to three minutes and deflating. A carpal spasm is a positive response

tuberculosis (TB) an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

tumour markers protein molecules detectable in serum or other body fluids which can be used as a biochemical indicator of the presence of a malignancy. Small amounts of tumour marker proteins are found in normal body tissues or benign tumours and are not specific for malignancy

tympanoplasty reconstructive surgery for the eardrum


U

ureters membranous tube that drains urine from the kidneys to the bladder

urethra muscular tube that drains urine from the bladder

urgency feeling of the need to void urine immediately


V

varicocele a type of varicose vein of the small veins close to the testes

venous stasis slow blood flow of the veins

vertigo the sensation that you or the environment around you is moving or spinning

voluntary can be controlled



vomiting a disagreeable experience that occurs when the stomach contents are reflexively expelled through the mouth or nose

+ Leidos

Temas